Madbury NH was originally a part of Dover called Barbadoes. The name survives at Barbadoes Pond. Garrison houses were built as protection against the Indians. Later it was part of Durham, a Dover parish which organized in 1716 and then incorporated in 1735. Madbury was once the farm of Sir Francis Champernowne of Greenland, and named after his ancient family's mansion at Modbury in Devon, Engand.
The name Madbury Parish was first recorded in a 1755 grant made by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, with full town privileges granted in 1768 by his successor, Governor John Wentworth. A lumbering and farming community, Madbury was incorporated in 1775. Today, Madbury is mainly mmade up of rural residential homes, with its inhabitants generally employed elsewhere. Numerous faculty of the nearby University of New Hampshire reside here.